Ecotourism and Wildlife Management



Definition, scope, theory and practice of ecotourism in Nigeria. Developmental trends in ecotourism management worldwide. Identification and management of important tourist sites in Nigeria. Tourist suppliers and activities (wildlife viewing, bird identification, visiting cultural and historical sites, camping, sport fishing, swimming, etc.) Ethics of tourism. Renewable natural resources, availability, distribution and potential. The importance of wildlife species (with emphasis on Nigeria species). Classification, Morphology and distribution of important fauna species. Identification and management of Game reserves, National Parks and other conservation areas in Nigeria and West Africa countries. Significance of wildlife management and production. Field techniques in Wildlife Management. Introductory Game ranching and domestication.



                                                                                                                                                  (2 UNITS)                                                                                        

Computer hardware components and their functions, operating systems with emphasis on windows operating systems, file and disk management, Microsoft office, Microsoft word, Microsoft excel and Microsoft power point and the use of internet and search engines.

EWM 300 SWEP STUDENT WORK                                                                                           (1 UNIT)


EWM 301:  AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM                                                    (2 UNITS)

Distribution, structure and dynamics of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in tropical Africa with special reference to fresh water, rainforest and savannah ecosystems. Energy flow and nutrient cycling in the various ecosystems and their importance in conservation of water, soil, vegetation, wildlife. physico-chemical properties of fresh and brackish water, the hydrology and water cycle, study, and identification of fauna and flora of importance in tropical fresh water and coastal swamps. Ecology and utilization of aquatic flora and fauna, as well as the control of aquatic weeds.

EWM 302:  WILDLIFE POPULATION DYNAMICS                                                     (2 UNITS)

The ecology of wild animals with special reference to their distribution, and natural history, as well as the application of the knowledge gained for wildlife management and obtaining maximum returns from these resources. The population structure analysis with respect to size, age-group, sex -ratio, reproductive; survivorship and recruitment. The various factors affecting wildlife abundance and distribution, Immigration and Emigration in wildlife population. Construction of life tables for wildlife populations and application of different sampling techniques in wildlife management. The Niche Concept: habitat studies of wildlife communities in major aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of Nigeria. Territorial defense, home range of the individual species and populations.

EWM 303:  WILDLIFE ECOLOGY SURVEY                                                                         (2 UNITS)

Evaluation of wildlife resources in selected terrestrial environments by ground and aerial survey and censuring of wildlife populations. Remote sensing techniques, aerial photography, radar imagery, radio collar and animal monitoring. The systematic reconnaissance flight. Monitoring large mammals in grassland ecology, sample drive count, systematic belt transect count, Kilometric index. Wildlife distribution in relation to key resources (water holes, saltlick, fringing forest) of grassland. Techniques for population monitoring in rainforest ecosystem, Recce survey, the fixed transect survey, techniques for primate survey, capture and recapture methods, the standard nest count (SNC). The distance sampling techniques.


Tourism and recreation travel, origins, present characteristics and societal impacts, implication of non-business travel in Nigeria and the merging importance of international recreation. Components of the tourism – park and recreation center development system and the concepts of planning resources use at the larger-than-site scale. Physical and programme factors importance to development for visitor use computer techniques for land assessment. Liaises with the Nigeria Embassy of the prospective visitors home country.

EWM 305: WILDLIFE PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION                                                  (2 UNITS)  

Concept of wildlife production, production systems, production from the wild, game ranching, wildlife farming and domestication. Establishing and development of wild animal domestication and ranching of the ungulate with potentials for production of meat protein for human consumption.  Assess other characteristics features that can make them fit for other forms of utilization. Utilization such as production of hide and skin for export to the leather base industries, live animals for laboratory research programme in the pharmaceutical industries, supply to Zoos and circus in none consumptive form of utilization.

EWM 306: ZOO AND MUSEUM MANAGEMENT                                                       (2 UNITS)

Planning and Design of zoological gardens, capture and transportation of wild animals. Health, handling and care of wild animals in captivity. Amusement infrastructures in zoos and nature interpretation. +Feeding of animals, zoo sanitation. Control of visitors.   Collection, preservation and exhibition of wild animal specimens in museums for educational and recreational purposes.  Financial control and personnel management. Problems and prospects of zoo and museum management in Nigeria.

EWM 307: PRINCIPLES OF RECREATION AND ECOTOURISM                                        (2 UNITS)

Tourism and recreation travel, origins, present characteristics and societal impacts, implication of non-business travel in Nigeria, and merging importance of international recreation. Components of the tourism – park and recreation center development system and the concepts of planning resources use at the larger-than-site scale. Physical and programme factors important to development for visitors’ use. Computer techniques for land assessment. Liaises with the Nigeria Embassy of the prospective visitors home country.

EWM 308: HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOTOURISM                                (2 UNITS)

Tourist accommodation: types of accommodation; Hotels and guest-house; grade levels of Hotels and types of the available facilities. Tourists care: health facilities; clinics; health centre availability. Transportation types i.e. Air travel availability and accessibility to Airports; road and rail travel opportunities.

EWM 309: WILDLIFE PHYSIOLOGY AND ADAPTATION                                                    (2 UNITS)                                                                         

Different shapes and adaptive physiological and morphological designs in wild animals in relation to their environments. Natural environmental adaptation and physiological basis for migration, reproduction, feeding, temperature, pressure, lights and noise. The effects and limitations of temperature, photoperiod and the other environmental factors in the distribution and movement of animal’s comparative behavioural and physiological indices such as reproduction, changes in metabolites, hepatic and extra-hepatic enzymes of wild animals. Emphasis on selected individual animal species behavioural pattern in relation to body anatomy and physiology and in turn in relation to their food; feeding techniques and the habitat requirements and behaviours such as sociability and tolerance.    

EWM 310: LAND-USE PLANNING                                                                              (2 UNITS)

Land-use history, science and policy. Basic concept of land-use, land characteristics and qualities: land capability and classification, land improvement, integrated land use in wildlife management. Land tenure system, land-use decree. Land valuation and taxation. Land appreciation and depreciation. Encroachment and illegal occupation of park lands. Land ownership and different methods of land transfer. Sustainable land development capacity; water shed protection and infrastructures, optimum use of marginal lands, environmental auditing and conflict resolution.

EWM 311: NATURAL HISTORY OF AFRICAN MAMMALS                                                 (2 UNITS)

Characteristics of Vertebrates:  Orders of African Mammals.  General taxonomy characteristics.  Natural History of specific animals in the five major orders that are predominant in Africa’s protected ecological ranges; Proboscidaea:  African Elephant; Perrisodactyla:  Zebra, Rhinoceros etc Artiodacty Artiodactla-Antelopes, Bovids etc.  Canivora: Lion, Cheetah, Hyena, Leopards and Carnivores with omnivorous characteristics, Primata, primates-gorilla, chimpanzee, monkeys.




Definition and importance of food standard and legislations, Food and drug decrees of Nigeria, Food standards and regulations and legislation in Nigeria, Principles and methods of food quality contrl, Quality control charts, Parametric and non –parametric experiments, Sensory evaluation, Taste testing and panels.

EWM 313:       FIELD TRIP                                                                                           (2 UNITS)

Students will be expected to undergo a week training which involves participation and exposure to ecotourism and wildlife industries and parks in various parts of the country. Evaluation of technical reports submitted by the students at the end of trip will be carried out. The reports would be assessed and graded.

EWM 314: WILDLIFE DISEASES AND PARASITES                                                (2 UNITS)

Identification, morphology, taxonomy, life history of wildlife parasites. The ecological effects of parasites populations in the wildlife habitats. Common bacteria fungal  and viral of wildlife diseases and their control. Economic importance of diseases and parasites. Vectors and their classifications. Nature of vectors and their mode of operations. Method of control of diseases and parasites. Life cycles of parasites and their mode of infection.  Vectors and their nature and mode operations.

EWM 315: PROTECTED AREAS CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION                                    (2 UNITS)

Study of Nigeria history, culture and arts in pre-colonia times. Nigeria’s perception of his world, Cultural areas of Nigeria and their characteristics. Evolution of Nigeria as a political unit. Indigene/settler phenomenon. Concept of trade, Economics self-reliance, social justice, individual and national development. Norms and values. Moral obligations of citizens. Environmental problems

EWM 316: INTRODUCTION TO HOME ECONOMICS                                            (2 UNITS)

Philosophy, scope, objectives and historical development of home economics. Examination of basic human needs with respects to food, clothing, shelter and health, programme approaches in home economics which will help meet these needs, preparation for careers in a variety of occupations.

EWM 318: ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT                                                                 (2 UNITS)

Energy and power:   Its demand, principles and outlook.  Cost of transformation of energy.  Thermal pollution and electrical energy from fossil fuel, hydroelectric power generation.  Cost, capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency and environmental effects of these.  Electrical energy from nuclear reactors; prospect for the future through the promise (and problems) of breeder reactors, fusion power, solar power, geothermal, tidal and wind power.




Basic and practical objectives of biodiversity management and conservation in Nigeria.  Development, management and conservation methods of the various biodiversity components and their natural habitats or ecosystems; genetic, species, ecosystems, diversity, distribution, factors influencing the distribution of biodiversity, global distribution, distribution in Africa, biodiversity hotspots, values of biodiversity – uses, non-use values, biodiversity and livelihoods, threats to biodiversity, measurement of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation approaches and options. Biodiversity administration and legislation; problems of enforcing biodiversity conservation laws and regulations. Government policy regarding biodiversity administration and management in Nigeria. Conservation of endangered species of fauna and flora of endemic status and of economic importance and with reference to the United Nations Global Convention demands on biodiversity, that is “Biodiversity Convention”

EWM 403: PARKS PLANNING          AND INTERPRETATION                               (2 UNITS)

Fundamental of the recreation planning process, historical prospective and objective of planning models, major component analysis including public involvement, resources evaluation, demand analysis, classification of systems and standards. General features of Parks and other wildlife conservation areas. The objectives and importance of establishing wildlife parks in the socio-economic development of the community; principles and concepts of park management; the management master-plans and parks administration. Park organization, development and management in Nigeria, East and Southern Africa. The principles of park interpretation.  

EWM 405: TOURISM ORGANIZATION AND TRAVEL PLANNING                                     (2 UNITS)

Tourism and recreation travel, origins, present characteristics and societal impacts, implication of non-business travel in Nigeria and the merging importance of international recreation. Components of the tourism – park and recreation center development system and the concepts of planning resources use at the larger-than-site scale. Physical and programme factors importance to development for visitor use computer techniques for land assessment. Liaises with the Nigeria Embassy of the prospective visitors home country.

EMW 407:  FIREARMS AND BALLISTIC TRAINING                                              (2 UNITS)

Major considerations in firearms use in Wildlife management.  Different firearms types, techniques of gun loading, aiming and shooting, handling and maintenance of firearms and ammunitions. Precaution to be taken in fire arms and ballistics training. Methods of maintaining arm and ammunition. Use of explosive and other chemicals. Hunting techniques/types of hunting, principles of fair cheers, hunting ethics, hunting instrument for different animals.



EWM 409:  ECOTOURISM PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT                                   (2 UNITS)

Concepts of ecotourism management plan (EMP), participants in the planning process, factors determining the length of planning process and decision to  prepare an EMP, sources of funding for EMP, who prepares an  EMP, conservation area planning, and preliminary site evaluation, full site diagnostic (FSD), diagnostic information, data analysis and plan preparation, EMP structure, implementation of EMP, site plans, stakeholders’ analysis, measures of success of EMP, limits of acceptable change (LAC).


EWM 411: ANIMAL CAPTURE TECHNIQUES                                                               (2 UNITS)

Darting and injection equipment, wildlife capture drug, chemical restraint of principal of African herbivores, Immobilization and anesthetic techniques for primate, danger associated with the use immobilization drugs and the emergency treatment of accidents, mechanical capture techniques and restraint of wild herbivores and primates, live capture of wild carnivores. Physiological and ecological conditions for transportation of wild animals, general characteristics of infectious and parasitic diseases in captive wildlife

EWM 413: CARTOGRAPHY AND GIS TECHNIQUES                                              (2 UNITS)

Basic concept, theory and practices in cartography and GIS mapping techniques. Methods of analysis and interpretation of cartographic and GIS field equipment. Review of basic concepts in Remote sensing map reading and interpretation. Aerial survey and analysis. Edaphic survey and GIS analysis, maps and data, displaying, obtaining information about features, analyzing feature relationships - buggering overlays, adjacency, non-spatial queries, creating and editing data, presenting data, GIS case studies – participatory land use mapping. Nigeria National Park, and wildlife mapping. Acquisition of remotely sensed data, image processing and enhancement. Fundamentals of aerial photography interpretation.  Multi-spectral scanning systems (MSS) Landsat operation interpretation of data.  Use of GIS for future prediction.



The research process: Types of research, the role of research in wildlife management, identifying research questions, hypothesis formulation, observational versus experimental research, sampling, experimental design, social science research, social science research methods, Factors to consider in social science research, sampling, questionnaires, factors to consider when writing a questionnaire,  types, participatory methods, rapid rural appraisal, specific PRA tools, Values of PRA to wildlife management, data analysis, developing and use of computer software for data analysis. Writing research proposals: Literature review, proposal format, budget and work plans. Presenting research findings: Writing research reports, writing research papers, preparing research posters, oral presentations. Monitoring and long-term studies: Definition of monitoring, designing a monitoring programme, common mistakes in monitoring programmes, analysis and interpretation of long-term studies, monitoring case study

EWM 417: INTRODUCTION TO HOME ECONOMICS                                            (2 UNITS)

Philosophy, scope, objectives and historical development of Home economics. Examination of basic human needs with respect to food, clothing, shelter and health, programme approaches to home economics which will help meet these needs. Preparation for careers in variety of occupation.


EWM 402: STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) INDUSTRY-BASED SUPERVISOR’S ASSESSMENT                                                                       (4 UNITS)                       

Students are expected to undergo at least six months industrial training in organizations relevant to any of the branches of Ecotourism and Wildlife Management, with a view to developing more practical skills in the discipline. Students are supervised during the training period and shall be expected to keep log books and other records designed for the purpose of monitoring students’ performance.

EWM 404: FUTA SUPERVISOR’S ASSESSMENT                                                       (4 UNITS)

This involves the assessment and grading of the students’ record of work during the period of the industrial training and experience.

EWM 406:  STUDENTS’ REPORT AND SEMINAR                                                     (4 UNITS)

The report of the activities of individual student is assessed and graded together with the seminar presentation on the industrial activities.           

EWM-500: SEMINAR                                                                                                               (2 UNITS)

Instruction on the preparation, presentation and discussion of critical reviews of topics important to Ecotourism and Wildlife to be followed by students’ presentation of above reviews.

EWM 501: HOTEL AND CATERING MANAGEMENT                                              (2 UNITS)

Definition of an hotel; maintenance and care in the hotel; identification; preparation and use  of cleaning agents and materials; hotel costing; catering organization, types and management; kitchen planning and management; equipment; materials; tools; safety and food hygiene; cooking, methods and types of heat transfer. Proprietors obligations to receive all travelers; provide accommodation, refreshment to guests, care of guests  and their properties. Laws of contract; liquor licensing laws; food and drug decree; hygiene regulation, cancellation of hotel booking either by proprietor or guest and remedy for breach of contract




EWM 502 IMPACT OF ECOTOURISM ON ECOSYSTEMS                                      (2   UNITS)

Design of the tourism facilities into paths and routes. Distribution of tourist activities within the ecosystems in order of compatibility. Maintenance of tourist facilities and control of wastes generated as well as tourist activities.  Assessment of rate of movement of tourists in and out of the preserved areas.  Assessment of tourist population on the flora and fauna resources of the reserve; this involves checking level of damages done to various species of flora and fauna resource during the p         riod of tourist visit.  Effects of tourist services on introduction of diseases and parasites into the parks.  Assessment of impact on park infrastructural facilities.

EWM 503: ECONOMICS OF ECOTOURISM (Marketing, Publicity and Trade)            (2 UNITS)

Basic concepts in economics and its application in Ecotourism, concept of economic development. Evaluation of natural areas values using fundamental of economic valuation. Impact of monetary economy on Ecotourism. Economic impact of Ecotourism on property rights and human behavioural changes. Utilization and marketing of different components of ecotourism. Advertisement of ecotourism centre in different parts of Nigeria. Cooperative society; churches and student organization; workshops; seminars and public lectures.  Methods and techniques of information generation and analysis in ecotourism publicity and marketing.  Factors of market fluctuation.  Role of government and NGO’s in ecotourism publicity and marketing programmes in Nigeria.  Problems facing ecotourism publicity and marketing techniques  in Nigeria.



 (2 UNITS)

Environmental conservation laws and regulations based on the ecological concepts of environment. Particularly, as it affects the natural resources components of the environment, resulting from human anthropogenic activities.  The maritime laws and its effect on marine and other aquatic natural resources, land-use laws, mining laws, petroleum exploitation laws and forestry laws. The Enforcement tools and the institutions, the Government policies as well as the various agencies saddled with the responsibilities of taking the custodian of the environmental natural resources of the country. Reference would be made of the international environmental natural resources conservation interest groups and environmental conservation treaties and agreements to which Nigeria is a signatory.

EWM 505: GAME RANCHING AND DOMESTICATION                                                     (2 UNITS)

Characteristics features in various wild animal species that qualify them for meat production. Captive breeding and propagation of the identified animal species of Nigerian origin. Breeding systems; selection methods, sex determination; Establishing and development of Cross-breeding programme; farm animal domestication and ranching of the ungulate with potentials for meat and hide production.

EWM 506:    HERPETOLOGY   AND OTHER AQUATIC WILDLIFE                                     (2 UNITS)

Living reptiles, their Taxonomic Classification and natural history; as well as their identification processes. Their reproductive ecology and captive propagation programme for the endangered individual species in the Class. The economic importance of the Class Reptilian in the global wildlife trade and the United Nations concerns and commitments. Studies of amphibians and other aquatic mammals, their classification, ecology and importance in the aquatic ecosystems, status and conservation measures that lead to the establishment of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES). 



Analysis of interface between terrestrial and coastal wetlands ecosystems, fauna and flora composition as well as the ecological functioning process of the two types of ecosystems. Wetlands and their economic importance and coastal wetlands management. The importance of avian to mankind environment and science world Morphological and physiological character for identification of avian in the field movement patterns in avian and its management implication to conservation.  Study of ecology of selected birds of prey game bird and water fowls.

EWM 508: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)                                (2 UNITS)

Basic concepts and history of Environmental Relationship Assessment (EIA).Relationship between Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and environment impact statement (EIS). Essentials Steps in EIA, the potential problems of EIA and proffered solutions. Considerations of environmental issues in project planning (physical infrastructure and facilities; biological, socio-cultural; economic and political). The EIA process; the essential elements in the EIA process, major players in the EIA process and the pre-requisites for EIA.  The Cost-benefit analysis as a tool for environment decision-making procedure for Monitoring, Auditing and preparation of Environmental Management Programme Report.


EWM 509: RANGE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES                                                 (2 UNITS)

Definition of rangeland and types of rangeland. Ecological formations associated with rangelands in Nigeria. Classification of rangeland; Eco-climatic classification and physiognomic classification  Significance of natural rangeland resources.  Vegetation, tree and soil dynamic.  Effects of grazing by domestic and feral animals. Decision support systems for effective management.  Field trip in the mid-semester break to properties and research stations in rangelands. Range establishment techniques. Management operation include the following: weed control, illegal grazing control, leaching and erosion control, reseeding, mulching and fertilizer application. The role of fire in rangeland management. Shelter belt afforestation and desertification control.


EWM 510: WILDLIFE GENETICS AND BREEDING                                                              (2 UNITS)

Protein synthesis and regulation. The genetic code, chromosomes and heredity. Gene mapping, mutation and mutagenes. The relationship between genetics and development. Evolution and Protein structure. Conservation genetics; introduction and review. Hardy Weinberg theory. Population genetics, models of population genetics, Natural selection, Wildlife forensic. Demographic estimations



Introduction to conflicts in conservation – meaning, types, nature and sources, evolution of conflict in conservation – concept of protected area, categories, establishment, management practices, analysis of conflict in protected areas, conflict management in protected areas, conflict; analysis of conflict situations, conflict resolutions framework, cultural dimension of conflict, alternative conflict resolution mechanism, communication and negotiation skills, case studies on conflict resolution and management in conservation.  

EWM 512: WILDLIFE NUTRITION                                                                              (3UNITS)

Principles of nutrition of wildlife; Chemistry and nutritive value of wildlife food Nutrient composition of wildlife foods; nutrient requirements of wildlife for various physiological processes; feed formulation, ration preparation and general methods of feeding.

EWM 513: AQUATOURISM AND FISHERIES RECREATION                                                    (2 UNITS)

Concepts of aquatourism, Aquatourism resources in Nigeria. Aquatourism tools and their efficiency, breeding management, nutrition and maintenance of selected aquatorism resources, Identification and culture of ornamental fish species, design and construction of aquarium, experimental and ornamental ponds. Types of sport fishing, objectives of sport fishing, sport fishing gears.


Meaning, concept and objectives of extension education, objectives of extension education, characteristics, principles and guideline for extension education, roles of wildlife extension education in Nigeria, extension – teaching methods, classification of extension teaching methods, communication in wildlife extension, learning and teaching processes in wildlife extension, methods and tools for information gathering. Local leaders in community wildlife extension works, planning and conducting community wildlife extension work. Principles, theories and methods of rural sociology, community structure and development, social structure as they influence use of natural resources, social problems created by wildlife management, theory and application of social psychological processes of human attitudes, values and behaviours toward wildlife. Community participation in wildlife and ecotourism project’ identification and development, indigenous knowledge in wildlife and ecotourism development.

EWM 515: BEE FARMING AND PROCESSING                                                         (2 UNITS)

The composition of the colony; the queen, the worker and the drones. Daily life of colony, how to start beekeeping, comb building, hiving a swarm, administration, inspection feeding and honey harvests. Bee keeping equipment, seasonal management, honey extraction, production of bee wax, collection of pollen, diseases and pest diagnosis.


             (2 UNITS)

Field and practical training in bridge and road construction techniques, draining construction and maintenance of foot paths and tracks, planning analysis and supervision of construction activities, design and selection for road, track and path layout.

EWM 517 ECOTOURISM HOSPITALITY AND MANAGEMENT                              (2 UNITS)

Tourist accommodation: types of accommodation; Hotels and guest-house; grade levels of Hotels and types of the available facilities. Tourist care: health facilities; clinics; health center availability. Transportation types i.e. Air travel availability and accessibility to Airports; road and rail travel opportunities.


EWM 518: TECHNIQUES IN TOURIST FOOD PREPARATION                              (2 UNITS)

Trainings in methods and techniques of proximate and nutrient analysis of plant, animal specimens Practical exposure to food preparation in ecotourism and hospitality laboratory.         

EWM 599: FINAL YEAR STUDENT’S PROJECT                                                       (6 UNITS)

Supervised study on an identified problem requiring both oral and written presentation. Students must attend tutorial on research techniques and scientific writing as well as oral presentation relating to student’s project in School. Students will be graded from the assessment of the Project Supervisor, the External Examiner’s Assessment and oral presentation before the Panel of Examiners. The students are mandated to submit four bound copies of the dissertation after the External Examiner’s Assessment.